Human-centred AI in the EU

Ethics, trustworthiness and human control are at the core of European guidance documents for artificial intelligence. But, as stated in the Coordination Plan on Artificial Intelligence, member states have been encouraged to develop their own national AI strategies built on the work done at the European level. This begs the question: how well is the European view of trustworthy AI echoed in national strategies and member state decision-making?

In the anthology, published by European Liberal Forum and edited by FORES, the authors analyze several member states’ national AI strategies in order to determine the extent of which they have been influenced by European AI policy. Countries examined are Portugal, the Netherlands, Italy, the Czech Republic, Poland, Norway and the Nordic countries as a whole.

The anthology’s starting point is the European Commission’s approach on “trustworthy AI”, expressed in the European Commission’s guidelines for ethical and reliable AI, in the Commission’s 33 policy and investment recommendations for trustworthy AI, as well as in the Commission’s White Paper on Artificial Intelligence. A central and guiding question is to what extent the elements of the Ethics Guidelines, such as ethical principles and key requirements, are displayed in the national strategy. Furthermore, the authors examine how countries talk about and promote AI in terms of applicability, consumer awareness, entrepreneurship, environmental concern and inequality.



AI policy in Portugal: Ambitious, yet laconic about legal routes towards trustworthy AI


AI policy in Poland: Ethical considerations already at the core


AI policy in Norway: Looking to the future and harmonised with the EU

The Nordics

AI policy in the Nordics: Pledging openness, transparency and trust, while expressing readiness to apply AI in society

The Netherlands

AI policy in the Netherlands: More focus on practice than principles when it comes to trustworthiness


AI policy in Italy: Comprehensive focus on core infrastructural robustness and humanistic values

The Czech Republic

AI policy in the Czech Republic: Strong business focus, welcoming towards foreign investment


Would you like to know more about this publication, contact one of our experts or book us for a conference or an interview? Please contact

Robin Vetter
Digital expert, FORES

Stefan Larsson
Researcher, FORES